Category Archives: Equestrian Sports Psychology

Book Review: Inside Your Ride: Mental Skills for Being Happy and Successful with your Horse

Inside your Ride: Mental Skills for Being Happy and Successful with your Horse by Tonya Johnston

c 2012 Cruz Bay Publishing/Equine Network: Boulder, CO. 263 pages.

ISBN 9781929164615

If you have ever struggled with: nerves, worry, fear, anxiety (performance or generalized), coping with pressure, etc., and it has affected your riding in a negative way—I would stop reading now and go pick up a copy of Inside Your Ride: Mental Skills for Being Happy and Successful with Your Horse. Author Tonya Johnston is a specialist in equestrian sports psychology, and her insights have increasingly appeared in articles, blogs and podcasts, with good reason. Inside Your Ride is well organized, coherent and broken down in such a way that any equestrian needing to “up their mental game” should find some helpful guidelines.

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The field of sports psychology has grown exponentially in the past ten to fifteen years, going from being almost like the secret weapon of the elite athlete to a tool that even casual riders can use to move past any number of mental/psychological impediments to their goals. Today, many sports psychologists focus on specific sports. This is to our benefit, I think, as we all know that horseback riding is a sport unlike any other, due to the fact that our powerful teammates can and often do have an agenda which is different from our own. Each author has their own tools, strategies and systems which help equestrians to move through their personal blocks, and I appreciate being able to read each professional’s take on the subject in books like this one. But to be effective, the content must be clear and structured in a way that you can work through it on your own—and Johnston has hit that mark in Inside Your Ride.

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It’s all about the view between these ears, after all. 

While this particular book does slant towards concerns common amongst riders that compete, I think there is plenty in here for any rider who has set more fundamental goals for themselves, goals as seemingly basic as getting more time in the saddle. In fact, the first chapter is dedicated to motivation, with Johnston acknowleding that people ride for many different reasons—and she helps the reader to identify for themselves what it is about riding that makes them choose to pursue the sport. From there, the book includes chapters on confidence (who doesn’t need more of that, right?), focus, energy, attitude, resilience and more. There is even a chapter on returning to the sport, whether it be after a fall, a significant break from riding, or a break from competing.

Johnston has included many personal anecdotes and fictionalized scenarios which help prevent the book from becoming too text-booky. Instead, it reads a little bit like the script to a TED talk—“here’s how I did it, and you can do it too!”.

She has also included quotes and feedback from top professionals, which I think is a good way of showing that even the best in the world have had their self-doubts and techniques like these have helped. The only downside to this—and this is going to sound trite but it is true—is that “celebrity status” in the horse industry can be fleeting, and if an author makes reference to too many former stars it can date the book.

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Bernie Traurig, coaching at a clinic in my area a few years back. With experience at the top levels of equestrian sport in three disciplines, he offered riders and auditors a wealth of knowledge.

Many of the individuals she quotes—Bernie Traurig, John French, Leslie Howard, for a few—are icons of the sport, but I know from personal experience as a teacher/educator that if I bring up these names, I am often met with blank stares from my students. Never mind those individuals whose time at the top was even more fleeting—the Olympic medalist who doesn’t have a string of horses and so faded back into the tapestry when their top horse retired, or the equitation champion whose transition to the adult divisions has not led to the same degree of success. On a weekly basis, I am left giving my students “Google homework” to look up someone who just a few years earlier would have been on the cover of every pre-eminent equestrian magazine.

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I was thrilled, almost ten years ago, to have the opportunity to clinic with my childhood idol, Greg Best. But many of my students don’t even know his name. Definite “Google homework”, in my book! And yes, I asked him to sign the poster I have of him and Gem Twist (he did).

So unfortunately, even for me, someone who recognized the names and respects their experience, some sections of this book felt dated, while others felt a little too “a la minute” in that the rider referenced sort of came and went so quickly that they don’t seem a relevant source. I am not sure that the 2019 equestrian is going to recognize that all of these sources have experience worth listening to. And I don’t think I needed them to make the book work.

But maybe none of this will bother you, and you will just take note that an “experienced horse person says that this technique works” and you will go try it for yourself. Which is the real point, I think.

I suspect that this is the sort of book you can read once, take away a few key concepts, then pick up again a year later and absorb a whole new insight. Mental preparation is sort of like developing riding skills—it takes practice and some commitment, and you get better at it with time. And I think our needs change over time, too—just read this forthright piece from Steffan Peters (and if you don’t know who he is…you have Google homework, too…).

4/5 stars

Fighting Fear in Riding and in Life

I don’t know this for a fact, but my hunch is that there isn’t a single equestrian who hasn’t, at some point, experienced the limiting effects of fear.  Fear plays an important role, evolutionarily speaking, in keeping us alive.  Fear itself is an emotional experience which triggers biological responses; for many species, it triggers increased heart rate, respiration and muscle tension, and a heightened state of alertness.  Horses as a prey species are well known for their genetically driven “fight or flight” response to unfamiliar stimuli, and it is only through careful and systematic desensitization and conditioned response training that we humans can work to overcome some of these natural reactions.  But as much as the human species has tried to separate itself from other animals, the truth is that many decisions in our lives are still driven by fear, manifested by our own fight or flight response to situations which we think might cause us harm.

A few weekends ago, the UNH Equestrian Team attended a sports psychology seminar with Alannah DiBona of Windhorse Counseling. DiBona reminded all present that fear is a normal response to a situation which our brains think could cause us physical or emotional harm.  DiBona defined fear as “false evidence appearing real”, and told the riders that it is necessary to examine one’s fear in order to truly address it.

“Is the fear serving you in any way, or is it preventing you from doing something you want to do?” DiBona asked the audience.

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Fear is a funny thing, because very often it is the things which we want the most which can simultaneously scare us—this is true not just when it comes to riding and our equestrian goals, but to all aspects of our life, whether we are starting a new job, buying a house or falling in love.  And fear can really limit us. There are plenty of tips and strategies as to how equestrians should address fear in their riding.  But I guess it always comes down to that essential question: are you feeling fear because of the actual task or expectation in what you are doing, and its accompanied level of risk, or do you feel fear because in your heart of hearts, you don’t want to do what you think you want to do at all?

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Anna jumping the ditch and wall at Ledyard. I was way more worried that she was.

For the riders I work with, jumping in particular seems to trigger a large number of fear responses.  All riders (and horses) have a limit in terms of what they will be comfortable jumping in terms of height, technicality or speed.  But I feel like I work with a lot of riders who are on the line of needing to decide whether their fear is serving them or not.  In their mind, they think they want to jump, but when faced with an actual jumping exercise, the fight or flight mechanism kicks in and renders their aids ineffective.

People ride for a lot of different reasons.  But for most people, at least one of those reasons is to have fun.  We enjoy being with horses, and we value establishing a relationship and communicating with an animal of a wholly different life mindset (prey vs. predator).  There is no written rule that overcoming fear should be a part of your daily riding ritual, and having to do so doesn’t make you tougher; it just makes you suffer.  I think when a rider is starting to have recurrent physical and/or emotional manifestations of fear, it is time to consider why they are riding and what they hope to get out of it.  There are tons of ways to enjoy being around horses, and if what you are currently doing isn’t allowing you to do that, it is time to make a change.

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This whole thought process is a corollary for me right now in another aspect of my life.  Thinking back to my earlier blog post about “living a sustainable life”, I think it is critical to analyze what you are doing when you feel like your wheels are spinning and you aren’t getting anywhere.  Fear can cause us to keep repeating the same familiar patterns over and over, even though we know that they aren’t working for us or are keeping us from doing something which is much more supportive of our core values.  There is a post circulating on Facebook which says something along the lines of, “instead of thinking of it as not having time to do something, think of it as “it’s not a priority””.

Try it and see how it feels.  “I don’t have time to ride today” vs. “It isn’t a priority to ride today”.  I think that is a pretty powerful way of looking at things.

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Right now, fear is currently preventing me from acting on something which has caused me a great deal of anxiety, frustration and anger.  I know that responding to this action against me is a priority, but the question becomes whether my fear of the possible consequences of that response is enough to still hold me back.

When it comes to fear, it might not be any easier for my students to jump an oxer than for me to deal with my personal situation. Such is the nature of fear.

 

 

 

Daniel Stewart “Pressure Proof” Your Riding!

The question of “mental toughness” as it pertains to equestrian sport is one which has been of increasing interest to me in recent years, for several reasons.  First, as the coach of an intercollegiate riding team, I have often noticed that what seems to separate those who win from the rest is not simply equitation skills; of course, you must find your fences, but equally important is the rider’s ability to maintain focus and self-confidence.  Secondly, as an instructor, I have seen so many riders whose progress is stifled because either they don’t believe that they are capable of being better than they are, or they don’t care to be better than they are.  Finally, “mental toughness” is an area that I find that I now personally struggle with as a competitor.  Nerves plague me far more today than they ever did when I was younger, and these jitters sometimes turn into a level of anxiety which causes me to feel utterly exhausted before I have even set foot in the stirrup. The question of how to build a rider’s “mental game” is one which has intrigued me and prompted me to begin investigating the topic further.

This summer, I was fortunate to be able to participate as a rider in a clinic focusing on “pressure proofing your riding” with equestrian coach and sports psychologist Daniel Stewart.  The clinic was hosted by Lauren Atherton Eventing and was held at our facilities at UNH in Durham, NH.

The participants and auditors from the Daniel Stewart clinic at UNH July 2013.  Photo credit: Lauren Atherton Eventing
The participants and auditors from the Daniel Stewart clinic at UNH July 2013. Photo credit: Lauren Atherton Eventing

Prior to the clinic, I was moderately familiar with Stewart (he has been a frequent guest speaker at the USPC Annual Meeting) and had read his first book, Ride Right, which focused a bit more on combining physical exercises with mental imagery.  His new book, Pressure Proof Your Riding, was just released this fall, and after riding in the clinic, I found myself pre-ordering a copy.

As it happens, the book arrived as the fall semester was beginning, and it was moved to the shelf, waiting for that mystical “free time” in which I would “focus” and “really absorb” the book.  Hmm….

A few weekends ago, I was able to hear Stewart speak again, this time at the Area I Annual Meeting in Northampton, MA.  The lecture he gave was similar to the one he provided at the clinic this summer (and a hearty “atta boy” to Stewart for being able to maintain the same high octane energy level and enthusiasm he did presenting this lecture, which he must have given at this point on countless occasions), but it did help me to reconnect with some of the important concepts that I learned about in July.  As we continue to move forward into the Year of Gratitude, it seems like a good opportunity to “focus” and “really absorb” some of his key concepts, even if I don’t actually get to that “free time” where I will sit and read the book from cover to cover.

Developing a Solution Focused Mindset

One of Stewart’s first points is that being nervous means that you care about what you are doing, and overall, nerves are a good thing!  However, nerves can get out of control, so learning to manage your nerves is a critical skill to master.  To quote Stewart, “Perfect position won’t help you if you can’t focus”.

Stewart also discussed learning to develop a “solution focused mindset”, as opposed to a problem focused mindset. Of course, this can sometimes be easier said than done.  Therefore, he proposes several unique yet interconnected strategies to help riders learn to control their arousal level and thereby maximize their performance.

Music Motivation

We all know that music can affect our emotional state—so why not use this to our advantage?  Stewart suggests choosing several songs which you personally find “pump you up” (if you need that type of encouragement) or “calm you down” (if you are someone who tends to get hyper under pressure).  Look up those songs’ lyrics—do any of them contain motivational messages? You are basically looking for positive affirmation sentences within the lyrics.  Stewart then says you should narrow your play list down to just one or two songs whose anthems really help you get into a positive and focused mental state.

Listen to your music at the beginning of the week before an important ride or competition, and imagine yourself having the ride you are hoping for.  Stewart likens this to creating your “personal highlight reel”.  You can listen to the music on your way to the barn or in the aisle as you groom.  Spend some time really feeling your ride as you let the positive motivational messages seep into your psyche.

Anna on approach under Daniel Stewart's eye during the "playground" exercise at the July 2013 clinic.  My "pressure" would have increased exponentially if these jumps had been about five holes higher.... Photo Credit Lauren Atherton Eventing
Anna on approach under Daniel Stewart’s eye during the “playground” exercise at the July 2013 clinic. My “pressure” would have increased exponentially if these jumps had been about five holes higher…. Photo Credit Lauren Atherton Eventing

Cue Words

Stewart points out that when under pressure, it is easy to forget what it is you are supposed to be doing—does anyone remember watching David O’Connor looking for the next jump when the Olympic gold medal was on the line?  He calls this “stress induced amnesia”.

We all know that there are certain pieces of our riding that require extra focus—maybe you need to keep more weight into your heels, or look where you are going, or establish a forward canter with your horse before the first jump.  But add a bit of pressure, whether as intense as competition or as basic as someone you want to impress starts to watch you ride, and those skills go out the window.

To help riders stay focused and motivated, Stewart suggests coming up with a personalized “cue word”.  A cue word is a three to five letter acronym which triggers your long term memory about important information.  He gave several examples—STAR (Sit Tall And Release), LUCKY (Look Up Cluck Kick Yell), there were more… but you get the idea.  This cue word will help you to remember the one or two most important physical or mental things you can do to ensure your success. Most of the words he gave as examples also carried a positive message or image in and of themselves.

Stress Stoppers

Stewart says that a “stress stopper” is a pre-competition ritual that can be used to regain focus when you have lost concentration.   It puts your attention back onto something that you can control, and helps to stop the perception of stress.  Apparently professional athletes in more conventional sports do this all the time—a particular dribble of the basketball before taking a foul shot, knocking the bat against a cleat before matching up with a top pitcher, etc.

In riding, a stress stopper can be as basic as taking deep breaths and smelling the “aura” of a horse or stroking a ‘lucky’ braid, even wearing a special pair of socks.  It really is a personal ritual or action that you find gives your brain something to do, to calm down and re-focus when needed.  Many of these rituals are almost superstitious, but they allow us to take our brain’s focus off of the pressure or nerves and onto something else.

An interesting concept that comes up a lot in sports psychology (and education, as well) is “flow”.  When someone is in a state of “flow”, they are totally immersed in whatever task they are doing, and it is as though no time passes at all.  They are focused, intense, and wholly engulfed in the work at hand.  Stewart spoke of “flow” and that it is important for a rider athlete to be in a state of flow in order to “get in the zone”.  When a rider is “in the zone”, they are able to focus on the present, and to identify solutions to problems by being aware of the skills that they have and what they are good at.  The ride at this point becomes automatic.

Here, Anna and I were "in the moment" and the exercise became easy and fun-- like bring on the playground is supposed to be! Photo Credit Lauren Atherton Eventing
Here, Anna and I were “in the moment” and the exercise became easy and fun– like bring on the playground is supposed to be! Photo Credit Lauren Atherton Eventing

“Targeting” is when you use an auditory target to help achieve a state of flow.  In horseback riding, Stewart says that focusing on repetitive sounds such as you or your horse’s breathing, or the sound of the horse’s footfalls, works really well.  This is a form of “cadence training”, where you focus your attention on the rhythm of your horse’s gaits (one-two, one-two), which can help you to achieve harmony with the movement of the horse.

Stewart explained that this type of auditory cue can almost become like a chant, a positive affirmation or a mantra that can help riders to maintain focus.

Focus for a rider really is everything—humans are not good at “mental multi-tasking”, says Stewart, meaning that in spite of what we might think, we cannot focus on two things at once.  I know that I can’t watch TV and also attend to the person on the phone (so don’t expect an answer if I am watching one of my favorite shows), and I also know that I can’t focus on my placing in a class and my show jumping course, or wonder what score the judge just gave my centerline while still riding a balanced and flowing corner.  The rider must choose what she wants to focus on, and that is why these techniques which can help us to “stay in the zone” become so critical.

Staying focused when the unexpected happens (like clearly missing your distance) takes practice and "mental toughness".  Photo Credit Lauren Atherton Eventing
Staying focused when the unexpected happens (like clearly missing your distance) takes practice and “mental toughness”. Photo Credit Lauren Atherton Eventing

Building Your Brand

Stewart’s final theme of the lecture was on “building your brand”, and my take away is that this is a way of combining all that you have been working on into one effective strategy to gain control of your focus.  Actually, writing this blog is part of my own “building my brand” process.  Stewart reminded us that up to 80% of what we hear in a day will be forgotten; to just sit in the lecture and not do anything with the material will not allow the listener to really absorb it.  However, we DO remember 90% of what we teach to others—so in listening to the lecture twice and now summarizing it for you, I definitely feel as though I personally am beginning to internalize Stewart’s message. Whether you, gentle reader, will do the same is up to you!

To “build your brand”, Stewart says that you must take your four pieces of homework (music motivation, cue words, stress stoppers and cadence training) and connect them together.  He gave many examples of how previous clients had done this; the only one that I really remember was the LUCKY girl, whose horse’s name was Lucky, she rubbed a horse shoe for luck before mounting, had the word “lucky” in her music, etc.  By making all four of your pieces “fit” together, they become a system which is easy to remember and to apply.

Laugh Learn Love

In spite of our best mental preparation, things do not always go the way we had hoped for.  And so, a final message from Stewart—and so relevant in this Year of Gratitude—is to remember to LAUGH (even if you don’t feel the laugh for real, faking it with ‘strategic laughter’ will still release feel good hormones, and since your brain can’t focus on two things at once it will respond as though you meant it), LEARN (when things don’t go your way, figure out what went wrong and look for the solution) and finally, LOVE—there is a reason we do this sport, after all, and I doubt for most of us it is for a $2.00 ribbon.

Our first ride-- already a match!
Our first ride– already a match!

Final Thoughts

So what is my “brand”?  I am not quite sure yet; actually, I don’t even have a clue.  I do think that much of what Stewart is teaching really makes sense to me—and some of his concepts are ones which I have already (unwittingly) used.  For me,  it is all about being able to push the other thoughts aside and to find that state of ‘flow’; those moments when it is just you and your horse, and you aren’t worrying about what people think about your style of riding or whether you are going to embarrass yourself or make your horse look bad.  I guess these are some of the worries that go through my mind, anyway.  When I can just feel my horse, feel the rhythm, and really ride, all the rest of that goes away.

Anna schooling at UNH Event Camp, 2011
Anna schooling at UNH Event Camp, 2011